Health-care systems' resource footprints and their access and quality in 49 regions between 1995 and 2015: an input–output analysis - EHESP - École des hautes études en santé publique Access content directly
Journal Articles Lancet Planetary Health Year : 2023

Health-care systems' resource footprints and their access and quality in 49 regions between 1995 and 2015: an input–output analysis

Abstract

Background -Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of health care are often limited to greenhouse gas emissions. To broaden their scope, our aim was to determine the evolution of the resource footprints, dependency, and efficiency of health-care systems and to determine the relationship between this evolution and their Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) index.Methods -We carried out an input–output analysis of 49 health-care systems from 1995 to 2015. We harmonised the EXIOBASE v3.8.2 database—providing data for 49 world regions—to the World Health Organization Health Expenditures Database. We then performed a panel data analysis to understand the relationship between Healthcare Access and Quality index and energy footprint per capita of health-care systems. EXIOBASE3 does not provide measurement errors so it was not possible to propagate the uncertainties as can be done with other input–output databases.Findings - Health-care systems' footprint increased over the past two decades, reaching 7% of global non-metallic minerals footprint, 4% of global metal ores footprint, and 5% of global fossil fuels footprint in 2013. This increase was mostly due to China, rising from 7% of the non-metallic minerals footprint in 1995 to 45% in 2013. 80% of the health-care systems studied were dependent at more than 50% on fossil fuel imports. The energy footprint per capita was correlated exponentially with the HAQ index but some countries performed much better than others at a given energy footprint. Health-care systems have not become more efficient between 2002 and 2015.Interpretation - Health-care systems' resources footprint are exponentially linked to their HAQ. Both prevention and efficiency measures will be needed to change this relationship. If it is not enough, high-income countries will have to choose between further reducing the resource consumption of their health-care systems or shifting the efforts to other sectors, health being considered an incompressible need. We call for the creation of a HAQE (health-care access, quality, and efficiency) index that would add resource efficiency to access and quality when ranking health-care systems.
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Dates and versions

hal-04196830 , version 1 (05-09-2023)

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Baptiste Andrieu, Laurie Marrauld, Olivier Vidal, Mathis Egnell, Laurent Boyer, et al.. Health-care systems' resource footprints and their access and quality in 49 regions between 1995 and 2015: an input–output analysis. Lancet Planetary Health , 2023, 7 (9), pp.e747-e758. ⟨10.1016/S2542-5196(23)00169-9⟩. ⟨hal-04196830⟩
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